October-December 2019 Issue

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CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS - A TECHNICAL OVERVIEW

Sweta Das

Former Lecturer, Department of Biochemistry & Medical Biotechnology, Pt. JNM Medical College, Raipur

Abstract:

The study of chromosomal structure and function is known as Cytogenetics. Recent advances in chromosomal preparation and staining techniques have greatly enhanced the potential of Cytogenetics which encompasses cytology and genetics. A skilled Cytogeneticist can contribute greatly in prenatal and oncological diagnostic fields by karyotyping and specifically looking for chromosomal alterations.

This review summarizes the history and evolution of the field of Cytogenetics followed by reviewing the current techniques of cytogenetic analysis like in situ hybridisation (FISH), chromosomal painting, chromosomal micro-dissection, chromosomal sorting & analysis and perspectives on how these can be applied to the studies of leukemias and lymphomas. Cytogenetic research utilizing the advantage of high-tech Cytogenetics, can potentially act as a very useful tool in medical diagnosis of various genetic diseases, can pave the way for possible treatment and management.

Beta Globin Gene Haplotype: A Review

P.K. Khodiar1, S. Bhagat2

1. - Professor 2. - Former Lecturer, Department of Biochemistry & Medical Biotechnology, Pt. JNM Medical College, Raipur

Abstract:

A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a set of DNA variations (alleles) that are usually inherited together. These sets or haplotypes are located on one chromosome. In sickle cell anemia, ßS-globin haplotypes represent the ethnic group or geographic region from which patients originated. High prevalence of sickle cell gene in Chhattisgarh demands an insight into hemoglobin S haplotypes in the DNA of the ßS-gene-cluster in the local subpopulations. The polymorphism of the ß-globin gene haplotypes and frameworks is a helpful tool in determination of the origin of a mutation. Further these analysis can have potential implications not only for patient care but also in our understanding of the various genetic factors shaping the prevalence of sickle cell disease (SCD).

ß-globin haplotype described in this review can be utilized for the study of evolution, origin, and molecular mechanisms of sickle cell anemia known to be caused by mutations within the functional genes of such haplotypes. These analysis in correlation with epidemiological studies can form the basis for genotype prediction and developing appropriate strategies for antenatal diagnosis, predicting the variable clinical severity of the disease and detection of high risk sickle cell anemia patients.

Allergic Rhinitis in Children: Updates and Challenges

Prankur Pandey

MBBS, MD (Pediatrics), DAA (Diploma in Allergy and Asthma) (CMC, Vellore and International Asthma services, Denver USA) Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics Pt JNM Medical College, Raipur Email- prankurpandey@gmail.com

Abstract:

Causal factors, patho-physiology, clinical features and management of Allergic Rhinitis have been described in this paper.

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